Kalufi in Krekovi, Nevesinje, RS

2017-12-20T12:57:10+00:00November 19th, 2017|Categories: BIH|Tags: |

About

Kalufi, Krekovi

The Kalufi necropolis is the largest necropolis with tombstones in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They are usually oriented in the west-east direction or with a northwest-southeast deflection following the natural terrain. 7 tombstones are oriented north-south, i.e. northwest-southeast. According to the data available to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, based on research carried out by Šefik Bešlagić, it consists of 462 tombstones, of which 295 slabs, 150 chests, 3 gabled roof tombstones and 14 ancient spolia in secondary use were recorded at the necropolis. According to the data obtained following research carried out by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska /Republički zavod za zaštitu kulturno istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa RS/ in 2012, 464 tombstones were recorded of which 83 chests, 13 chests with bases, 226 slabs,  2 slabs with bases, 3 gabled roof tombstones, 1 gabled roof tombstone with bases and 136 fragments.

Tombstones  were cut from good quality limestone and most are finely shaped, but there are also some poorly hewed and even amorphous.

44 are decorated: 14 slabs, 28 chests and 2 gabled roof tombstones.  Ornaments at the necropolis Kalufi are limited to a few motifs such as status motifs:  sword, heraldic shield, sword with staff; symbolic motifs: rosette, crescent, plastic half-sphere and cross – plain cross, with double cross arm or anchor on the arms’ ending and anthropomorphic cross. The most common decorative motifs of these tombstones are twisted wreaths and circles. Several monuments have edgings in the form of twisted band or scrolling vines with trefoils. The arrangement of motifs is very simple. They commonly appear on the horizontal side of slabs or chests, either alone or sometimes in combination with two to three motifs. An architectural motif has been found on a chest with vertical sides decorated with Saracen arcades. Human figures appear on two monuments – a male figure with shield and sword.

No inscriptions have been recorded.

The tombstones numbered 43 and 44 have been kept in the Military Museum in Belgrade since 1960.

The Kalufi necropolis is the largest necropolis with tombstones in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They are usually oriented in the west-east direction or with a northwest-southeast deflection following the natural terrain. 7 tombstones are oriented north-south, i.e. northwest-southeast. According to the data available to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, based on research carried out by Šefik Bešlagić, it consists of 462 tombstones, of which 295 slabs, 150 chests, 3 gabled roof tombstones and 14 ancient spolia in secondary use were recorded at the necropolis. According to the data obtained following research carried out by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska /Republički zavod za zaštitu kulturno istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa RS/ in 2012, 464 tombstones were recorded of which 83 chests, 13 chests with bases, 226 slabs,  2 slabs with bases, 3 gabled roof tombstones, 1 gabled roof stećak with bases and 136 fragments.

Tombstones  were cut from good quality limestone and most are finely shaped, but there are also some poorly hewed and even amorphous.

44 are decorated: 14 slabs, 28 chests and 2 gabled roof tombstones.  Ornaments at the necropolis Kalufi are limited to a few motifs such as status motifs:  sword, heraldic shield, sword with staff; symbolic motifs: rosette, crescent, plastic half-sphere and cross – plain cross, with double cross arm or anchor on the arms’ ending and anthropomorphic cross. The most common decorative motifs of these tombstones are twisted wreaths and circles. Several monuments have edgings in the form of twisted band or scrolling vines with trefoils. The arrangement of motifs is very simple. They commonly appear on the horizontal side of slabs or chests, either alone or sometimes in combination with two to three motifs. An architectural motif has been found on a chest with vertical sides decorated with Saracen arcades. Human figures appear on two monuments – a male figure with shield and sword.

No inscriptions have been recorded.

The tombstones numbered 43 and 44 have been kept in the Military Museum in Belgrade since 1960.

Due to the impossibility of passing through the Neretva canyon from Konjic to Salakovac, Nevesinjsko polje (the Nevesinje field) was, from prehistoric through ancient times and the Middle Ages, a very important traffic route connecting the Adriatic coast with the hinterland.

A large number of prehistoric settlements of fort type with dry stone fortifications were located along the prehistoric communication line (in Biograd, Bojišta, Nevesinje /Jezdoška gradina/, Presjeci, Luka, Slat, Podgrađe, etc.) and along access roads (in Jasena Runjeva glavica, Udrežanj, Trusina, Bratač, Zalom and Lukavac).

Many of them were later developed into ancient villages, the remains of which were found in Udrežanj, Biograd, Zovi Do, Lukavac, Kifino Selo (Drenovik) Postoljani, Presjeci, Luka and Zaborani.

All roads from Gatačko polje (through Zalom), Ulog and Kalinovik (across the Morina Mountain), Blagaj and Stolac (through Trusina) met at the spring Drenovik in Kifino Selo.

In Drenovik, on both sides of Zalomak, the largest Roman settlement in Nevesinjsko polje developed. The presence of the Romans in these areas is evidenced by numerous remains, such as the remains recorded at the necropolis Kalufi, on the eastern border of the necropolis.

The following forms are represented: 1 cippus, 7 slabs with grooves, blocks with holes for cramps or for lead and slabs with damaged profile. No one knows exactly where all those pieces were brought from or to what kind of buildings they belonged. Ancient origin could be determined by the precise work and Roman measures.

The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja contains a reference to the župa (county) of Nevesinje (Netusigne, Netusini) that belonged to Podgorje, all of which was a part of Hum, later Herzegovina. In the oldest officially kept documents of the Dubrovnik Notary Service and Office from 1278, there was a reference to the slave trade from various Bosnian and Herzegovinian towns, including Nevesinje.

Nevesinje is mentioned in the Dubrovnik documents as a county until 1429, when it is first mentioned as a town.

During the period of trade with the Republic of Dubrovnik, Nevesinje was located on an important route from the coast towards Sarajevo; therefore, customs services were placed there. From 1303 to 1306, the county of Nevesinje was headed by Konstantin Nemanjić, son of Serbian King Milutin. At that time, Duke Poznan Purčić appeared on the scene of history. At a later stage, in 1327, he was a witness, along with his brothers, to the charters of Stjepan II Kotromanić, with the title ‘Duke and Head of the County of Zagorje and Nevesinje’. He was also a subject of King Dušan. The Purčićes were a noble family that crossed to the Bosnian side when they started penetrating into the Neretva valley. At that time, in 1391, an isolated case was recorded of a local man from Nevesinje becoming a citizen of Dubrovnik.

Since 1347, when they fell under the Bosnian rule during the reign of Ban Stjepan II Kotromanić, especially in the first half of the 15th century, the places of Nevesinjsko polje (Nevesinje field) were often mentioned in the Dubrovnik documents: Konac polje, Svileno and Nevesigne Nevesigne de Tucepe, campo de Nevesigne, Nevesinje in Postolach. Data arise in relation to looting, profession,  selling slaves or small and individual transportation of goods. From late 14th century to 1404, the Sankovićes ruled over Nevesinje.

After the fall of the Sanković family in 1404, Sandalj Hranić expanded his authority to that area. He resided in Nevesinje in 1404, when he introduced customs duties in Konac polje. Already in the first  decade of the 15th century, the whole county was called Nevesinje while the town of Nevesinje was mentioned in the Dubrovnik archive files only in 1429. In 1435, there was also a reference to the county seat – the fort of Vjenačac (Vinačac) with outskirts. Podbiograd, the suburbia of the town of Biograd in the county of Nevesinje, had been mentioned even earlier and more frequently, but it was referred to as a village. Vinačac was situated above the village. The town of Vjenačac was mentioned among the properties of Duke Stjepan in the charters from 1444, 1448 and 1454.

The Ottomans occupied Nevesinje between 1465 and 1466. Until 1468, Nevesinje bordered the region of Duke Vlatko that ended somewhere in Trusina, while Nevesinjsko polje was under the Ottoman rule. Duke (vojvoda) Husein from Nevesinje is mentioned in a document of the Dubrovnik archives from 1469.

The Name list of sandjak vilayet Herzegovina for the years 1468 -1469 contained many places in the area of Nevesinjsko polje known from the Middle Ages or including necropolises with tombstones: Živanj, Seljani, Kruševljani, Luka, Kljuni, Kovačići, Bijenja, Postoljani, Bojište, Nevesinje, Žiljevo, Čanje, Rast, Biograd, Bratač, Drežanj, Grabovica, Podgrađe, Slato and Udbina. Krekovi was not included, even though it was the largest necropolis with tombstones in Nevesinjsko polje and the second largest in the entire area of tombstones outspread. The necropolis was explored between 1964 and 1966 and the findings were published in 1972. Two tombstones were transported to the Military Museum in Belgrade in 1960. No restoration and conservation works have been carried out.

The site with tombstones is located on a lot situated on the southern slopes of the Crvanj Mountain, north of the village of Krekovi. The northern border of the site is a local macadam road, while the southern border is defined by a private estate fence. The national monument is situated in the cadastral parcels no. 47, 86/1, 86/2 and 86/3 of the cadastral municipality of Krekovi in Krekovi, Municipality of Nevesinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina; state ownership.

Location

The site with tombstones is located on the parcel situated on the southern slopes of Crvanj Mountain, north of the village of Krekovi. The necropolis is located east of the road used in ancient times, passing through the field in the southeast-northwest direction. The northern boundary of the area is a local gravel road, while the south boundary is defined by a private property fence.

Kalufi in Krekovi, Nevesinje, RS
Kalufi in Krekovi, Nevesinje, RS

State of the location

The state of the site is not satisfactory since a large number of monuments have been affected by environmental factors, and many are sunken. Several high chest-shaped and gabled roof tombstones are tumbled. Some slabs and chests are chipped and cracked, and slabs are also broken in two or more pieces.

The tombstones are in poor condition, mostly covered by plant organisms (moss and lichen), most of which destroy the structure of the tombstones, much more intensely than in the sixties of the 20th  century, so that nowadays the decorations on some tombstones are barely recognized.

FAQ

There is no offer of any kind at the site other than the possibility to visit it. The site can be accessed by an asphalt road with appropriate traffic signs. There is a gravel parking lot with a signpost and a garbage can. There is no toilet. The construction of a marquee with benches and tables, a panoramic info board and additional signs is in progress as well as setting up a larger number of garbage cans. Statistical data are not available, but the estimated number of tourists ranges around 10,000 at annual level. Every year in Nevesinjsko field there is a sports event called the Nevesinje Olympics which involves over 1,200 athletes from the region competing in 38 disciplines of which horse races are the most significant. A tourism development plan exists and the project called Walking Trail Kalufi – Svatovsko Groblje is implemented as part of it. The project of valorisation of cultural heritage is funded by the Municipality of Nevesinje and OXFAM Italia. The Municipality has hired one person within the office for information and reception to work on organizing and qualifying the system and tourist services. Active in the territory of the Municipality are the NGOs Omladinska inicijativa (Youth Initiative) and Info Nevesinje.